Title

Phylogenetic relationships among Halyini (Pentatomidae: Pentatominae) genera based on morphology, with emphasis on the taxonomy and morphology of the Solomonius-group

Date of Completion

January 2004

Keywords

Biology, Entomology

Degree

Ph.D.

Abstract

The tribe Halyini (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae: Pentatominae) comprises 84 genera and approximately 400 species which together represent approximately 10% of the world stink bug fauna. This work represents the first effort to determine the phylogenetic relationships among halyine genera on a global basis. Morphological data gathered from 74 species in 62 putative halyine genera and seven outgroup taxa were analyzed with both parsimony and likelihood (Bayesian) phylogenetic analyses. As currently circumscribed, the Halyini was found not to be monophyletic. Trees resulting from the analyses suggest that several genera formerly included in the tribe should be removed: Mimikana Distant, Goilalaka Ghauri, Neosurenus Distant, and Atelias Kirkaldy. Two genera, Memmia Stal and Nealaria Bergroth, previously considered to belong outside of the Halyini, should be included in the tribe. Relationships among the Halyini indicate a major dichotomy between the Australian/Oceanian fauna and the remainder of the world's halyines. The Nearctic/Neotropical fauna appears to be derived from the same ancestor as the Palearctic, Indomalaysian, and African faunas. A group of genera, the Solomonius-group, related to the Australian halyines, forms a well-supported monophyletic group that is endemic to New Guinea, Cape York, New Britain, New Ireland, and the Solomon Islands. The Solomonius-group contains seven genera (two newly described) and 31 species (20 newly described), all of which are described, and illustrated herein. A key to the species is also provided. The male genitalia of the Solomonius-group possess several unique morphological features: reduced parameres fused to the proctiger, a large sclerite basal to the proctiger which is hinged on the dorsum of the pygophore, fused medial penial plates, and variously developed lobes of the phygophore. A preliminary hypothesis for the functional morphology of the male genitalia is proposed based on the association between morphological structures and musculature. The musculature of the female genitalia is also described and compared with the existing literature on the subject. ^