Title

Impact of calcium in dairy products in combination with caloric restriction on body weight, hormones and health risk factors in postmenopausal women

Date of Completion

January 2007

Keywords

Health Sciences, Nutrition

Degree

Ph.D.

Abstract

We evaluated the effects of low (LC, ∼800 mg/d) and high (HC, ∼1400 mg/d) dairy calcium on body weight, body composition, glucose, insulin, leptin, plasma lipid profile, LDL particle size, and apolipoproteins (Apo B, CIII, E), in overweight/obese postmenopausal women (n = 56, average BMI of 33.1 ± 5.7kg/m2). The 3-month weight loss program involved caloric restriction (1,400 kcal/d) and macronutrient distribution: 51% CHO, 20.7% PRO, and 27.6% FAT. Using 3 randomly selected days, both groups average baseline dairy calcium intake was: 832 mg/d. At 3 months, LC was 861 ± 721 mg/d and HC was 1340 ± 494 mg/d (P < 0.05). For HC, weight decreased (87.7 ± 16.0 to 86.2 ± 15.6 Kg, P < 0.05), BMI decreased (33.5 ± 5.8 to 32.8 ± 5 kg/m2, P < 0.001), plasma total cholesterol decreased (218.6 ± 55.3 mg/dL to 196.5 ± 45 mg/dL, P < 0.05), LDL cholesterol decreased (129.2 ± 53.3 mg/dL to 103.8 ± 42 mg/dL, P < 0.05), HDL increased (59.2 ± 15.7 mg/dL to 63 ± 12.2 mg/dL, P = 0.104), total fat decreased (36.1 ± 7.0 kg to 34.7 ± 6.9 kg), trunk fat decreased (18.3 ± 4.4 kg to 17.6 ± 4.4 kg P < 0.001), plasma glucose decreased (74.7 ± 31.9 mg/dl to 71.1 ± 12.2 mg/dl, P < 0.05) and plasma leptin decreased (32.5 ± 9.9 μg/L to 31.3 ± 9.6 μg/L, P < 0.231). For LC group, weight decreased (86.4 ± 18.9 to 84.4 ± 19.6 Kg, P < 0.05), BMI decreased (32.5 ± 6.6 to 31.8 ± 6.9 kg/m 2, P < 0.05), LDL cholesterol decreased (104 ± 35.9 mg/dL to 93 ± 30 mg/dL, P < 0.05), HDL increased (60.8 ± 15.9 mg/dL to 64.8 ± 12.5 mg/dL, P = 0.098), total fat decreased (37.3 ± 12.4 kg to 35.4 ± 13.4 kg, P < 0.05), trunk fat decreased (17.1 ± 7.1 kg to 16.5 ± 7.6 kg (P = 0.27) and plasma leptin from 27.8 ± 9.9 μg/L to 25.2 ± 11.1 μ/L, P < 0.114). Plasma TG, LDL particle size, mean, pattern, and apolipoproteins were not affected by this intervention in either group, while LDL peak size was decreased in LC (267 ± 11 nm to 263 ± 15 nm) and increased in HC (257 ± 9.4 nm to 259 ± 12.4 nm) with significant between difference between groups (P < 0.05). ^ In conclusion, dairy calcium was effective in reducing TC trunk fat and increasing LDL-PS, while dairy calcium combined with caloric restriction was effective in decreasing weight, BMI, improving body composition parameters, leptin, glucose, insulin, insulin resistance and plasma lipids in this population. ^