Title

Modulation of inflammatory response and appetite regulation by egg intake

Date of Completion

January 2009

Keywords

Health Sciences, Nutrition

Degree

Ph.D.

Abstract

The objective of these studies was to examine the effects of egg consumption on inflammatory response and appetite regulation. This was assessed using a randomized, single blinded study conducted with 28 overweight/obese men (BMI: 25-37 kg/m2) 40-70 years of age. Subjects followed a carbohydrate restricted diet (CRD) with approximately 10% of energy coming from carbohydrates. Subjects were allocated to either the EGG group [3 eggs/day (640 mg/d additional dietary cholesterol)] or the SUB group [no additional dietary cholesterol] for 12 wk. ^ Body weight, total body fat and trunk fat were reduced for all subjects after 12 wk (P < 0.0001). Subjects in the EGG group had a 21% increase in adiponectin compared to a 7% increase in the SUB group (P < 0.05). Plasma CRP was significantly decreased in the EGG group (P < 0.05). MCP-1 levels were decreased for the SUB group (P< 0.001). ^ Additionally, these subjects experienced changes in appetite regulation. Fasting insulin (P<0.025) and fasting leptin (P<0.01) were reduced for both groups, which were correlated with the reductions in body weight and body fat (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). Both groups reduced insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (P<0.025). Serum glucose levels decreased after 12 wks. There were no changes in plasma ghrelin. The visual analog scale (VAS) showed that both groups felt more "full" (P<0.05) "satisfied" (P<0.001) and "wanted to eat less" (P<0.001). Postprandial appetite was assessed using a crossover design, in 21 men, 20-70 years of age. They consumed two isocaloric test breakfasts in a random order separated by one week. The composition of the breakfasts were: (EGG, % CHO:fat:protein = 22:55:23) and (BAGEL, % CHO:fat:protein = 72:12:16). Blood was drawn at baseline and at 30, 60, 120, and 180 min. Subjects consumed fewer calories after EGG compared to BAGEL (p<0.01). After EGG, subjects were less hungry and more satisfied (p<0.01). Area under the curves for glucose, ghrelin, and insulin were reduced after EGG (p<0.05). From these studies we conclude that egg consumption improves inflammatory markers in the context of a CRD. Additionally, eggs provide satiety by modulating appetite hormones, which results in reduced caloric intake. ^