The study determined the extent and manner; self-efficacy explains variation in GPA, attendance, and retention. The General Self-Efficacy Scale was adapted with a sample of N = 194, 34% male and 66% female. General and Specific factors had alphas of .72 and .75, respectively. Step-wise regression demonstrated General self-efficacy incremented the explanation of GPA variance 5% (p < .01). GPA was significantly correlated with non-attendance (r = - .72, p < .01, d = large) and retention (r = .52, p < .01, d = large). Non-attendance significantly correlated with retention (r = -.39, p < .01, d = medium).
Becker, Stephen P. and Gable, Robert K., "The Relationship of Self-Efficacy and GPA, Attendance, and College Student Retention" (2009). NERA Conference Proceedings 2009. Paper 26.