The development of efficacy beliefs in undergraduate preservice secondary teachers was studied over a two-year period to determine whether certain instructional practices associated with mastery experience, vicarious experience, social persuasion, and emotional state support increased efficacy beliefs. Using The Teacher Efficacy Scale: Short Form (Woolfolk and Hoy, 1993), year 1 data were collected only at the conclusion an Educational Psychology course; year 2 data were collected at the beginning and end of the semester, allowing for investigation of change in beliefs. Instructional practices are examined as potential influences on the development of efficacy beliefs.
Gowie, Cheryl J., "Developing Efficacy Beliefs in Preservice Teachers" (2010). NERA Conference Proceedings 2010. Paper 11.