The authors used data from the National Household Education Surveys (NHES) Program 2007 Parent and Family Involvement in Education Survey (National Center for Education Statistics, 2007) (N=10,681) to examine household income, gender, and race of parents, and their importance in shaping parental involvement in children’s education. The study finds that when accounting for tutoring that: (1) Pacific Islander mothers have the highest odds of being involved in their child's homework; (2) Black fathers have the highest odds of being involved in their child's homework; and (3) Low household incomes (compared to high household incomes) have the highest odds of being involved in their child’s homework. This study supports previous research on "nontraditional parental involvement," as well as previous research regarding high African American parental involvement.
Hartlep, Nicholas D. and Ellis, Antonio L., "Are Household Income, Gender, And Race Important In Shaping Parental Involvement In Children’s Education?" (2010). NERA Conference Proceedings 2010. 26.